October 24, 2014


Doing What I’m Not Suppose To Do

imageI suppose I’m doing what I’m not suppose to do. One of those things is writing in books.

I’m attending a local digital humanities conference. One of the presenters described and demonstrated a program from MIT called Annotation Studio. Using this program a person can upload some text to a server, annotate the text, and share the annotations with a wider audience. Interesting!?

I then went for a walk to see an art show. It seems I had previously been to this art museum. The art was… art, but I did not find it beautiful. The themes were disturbing.

I then made it to the library where I tried to locate a copy of my one and only formally published book — WAIS And Gopher Servers. When I was here previously, I signed the book’s title page, and I came back to do the same thing. Alas, the book had been moved to remote storage.

I then proceeded to find another book in which I had written something. I was successful, and I signed the title page. Gasp! Considering the fact that no one had opened the book in years, and the pages were glued together I figured, “What the heck!”

Just as importantly, my contribution to the book — written in 1992 — was a short story called, “A day in the life of Mr. D“. It is an account of how computers would be used in the future. In it the young boy uses it to annotate a piece of text, and he gets to see the text of previous annotators. What is old is new again.

P.S. I composed this blog posting using an iPad. Functional but tedious.

by Eric Lease Morgan at October 24, 2014 06:09 PM

August 28, 2014


Hundredth Psalm to the Tune of "Green Sleeves": Digital Approaches to Shakespeare's Language of Genre

Provides a set of sound arguments for the use of computers to analyze texts, and uses DocuScope as an example.
  • Creator(s): Hope, Jonathan;Witmore, Michael
  • Date created: 2010-09-21
  • Date read: 2014-08-28
  • Facet/terms: Formats/Journal articles; Themes/Text mining;
  • Rights: Restricted
  • Source: Jonathan Hope. and Michael Witmore. "The Hundredth Psalm to the Tune of "Green Sleeves": Digital Approaches to Shakespeare's Language of Genre." Shakespeare Quarterly 61.3 (2010): 357-390. Project MUSE. Web. 28 Aug. 2014. <http://muse.jhu.edu/>
  • Versions(s): original; local/annotated

August 28, 2014 04:00 AM

August 16, 2014


Publishing LOD with a bent toward archivists

eye candy by Eric

This essay provides an overview of linked open data (LOD) with a bent towards archivists. It enumerates a few advantages the archival community has when it comes to linked data, as well as some distinct disadvantages. It demonstrates one way to expose EAD as linked data through the use of XSLT transformations and then through a rudimentary triple store/SPARQL endpoint combination. Enhancements to the linked data publication process are then discussed. The text of this essay in the form of a handout as well as a number of support files is can also be found at http://infomotions.com/sandbox/lodlamday/.

Review of RDF

The ultimate goal of LOD is to facilitate the discovery of new information and knowledge. To accomplish this goal, people are expected to make metadata describing their content available on the Web in one or more forms of RDF — Resource Description Framework. RDF is not so much a file format as a data structure. It is a collection of “assertions” in the form of “triples” akin to rudimentary “sentences” where the first part of the sentence is a “subject”, the second part is a “predicate”, and the third part is an “object”. Both the subjects and predicates are required to be Universal Resource Identifiers — URIs. (Think “URLs”.) The subject URI is intended to denote a person, place, or thing. The predicate URI is used to specify relationships between subjects and the objects. When verbalizing RDF assertions, it is usually helpful to prefix predicate URIs with a “is a” or “has a” phrase. For example, “This book ‘has a’ title of ‘Huckleberry Finn'” or “This university ‘has a’ home page of URL”. The objects of RDF assertions are ideally more URIs but they can also be “strings” or “literals” — words, phrases, numbers, dates, geo-spacial coordinates, etc. Finally, it is expected that the URIs of RDF assertions are shared across domains and RDF collections. By doing so, new assertions can be literally “linked” across the world of RDF in the hopes of establishing new relationships. By doing so new new information and new knowledge is brought to light.

Simple foray into publishing linked open data

Manifesting RDF from archival materials by hand is not an easy process because nobody is going to manually type the hundreds of triples necessary to adequately describe any given item. Fortunately, it is common for the description of archival materials to be manifested in the form of EAD files. Being a form of XML, valid EAD files must be well-formed and conform to a specific DTD or schema. This makes it easy to use XSLT to transform EAD files into various (“serialized”) forms of RDF such as XML/RDF, turtle, or JSON-LD. A few years ago such a stylesheet was written by Pete Johnston for the Archives Hub as a part of the Hub’s LOCAH project. The stylesheet outputs XML/RDF and it was written specifically for Archives Hub EAD files. It has been slightly modified here and incorporated into a Perl script. The Perl script reads the EAD files in a given directory and transforms them into both XML/RDF and HTML. The XML/RDF is intended to be read by computers. The HTML is intended to be read by people. By simply using something like the Perl script, an archive can easily participate in LOD. The results of these efforts can be seen in the local RDF and HTML directories. Nobody is saying the result is perfect nor complete, but it is more than a head start, and all of this is possible because the content of archives is often times described using EAD.

Triple stores and SPARQL endpoints

By definition, linked data (RDF) is structured data, and structured data lends itself very well to relational database applications. In the realm of linked data, these database applications are called “triple stores”. Database applications excel at the organization of data, but they are also designed to facilitate search. In the realm of relational databases, the standard query language is called SQL, and there is a similar query language for triples stores. It is called SPARQL. The term “SPARQL endpoints” is used denote a URL where SPARQL queries can be applied to a specific triple store.

4store is an open source triple store application which also supports SPARQL endpoints. Once compiled and installed, it is controlled and managed through a set of command-line applications. These applications support the sorts of things one expects with any other database application such as create database, import into database, search database, dump database, and destroy database. Two other commands turn on and turn off SPARQL endpoints.

For the purposes of LODLAM Training Day, a 4store triple store was created, filled with sample data, and made available as a SPARQL endpoint. If it has been turned on, then the following links ought to return useful information and demonstrating additional ways of publishing linked data:

Advantages and disadvantages

The previous sections demonstrate the ease at which archival metadata can be published as linked data. These demonstrations are not the the be-all nor end-all of linked data the publication process. Additional techniques could be employed. Exploiting content negotiation in response to a given URI is an excellent example. Supporting alternative RDF serializations is another example. It behooves the archivist to provide enhanced views of the linked data, which are sometimes called “graphs”. The linked data can be combined with the linked data of other publishers to implement even more interesting services, views, and graphs. All of these things are advanced techniques requiring the skills of additional people (graphic designers, usability experts, computer programmers, systems administrators, allocators of time and money, project managers, etc.). Despite this, given the tools outlined above, it is not too difficult to publish linked data now and today. Such are the advantages.

On the other hand, there are at least two distinct disadvantages. The most significant derives from the inherent nature of archival material. Archival material is almost always rare or unique. Because it is rare and unique, there are few (if any) previously established URIs for the people and things described in archival collections. This is unlike the world of librarianship, where the materials of libraries are often owned my multiple institutions. Union catalogs share authority lists denoting people and institutions. Shared URIs across domains is imperative for the idea of the Semantic Web to come to fruition. The archival community has no such collection of shared URIs. Maybe the community-wide implementation and exploitation of Encoded Archival Context for Corporate Bodies, Persons, and Families (EAC-CPF) can help resolve this problem. After all, it too is a form of XML which lends itself very will to XSLT transformation.

Second, and almost as importantly, the use of EAD is not really the best way manifest archival metadata for linked data publication. EADs are finding aids. They are essentially narrative essays describing collections as a whole. They tell stories. The controlled vocabularies articulated in the header do not necessarily apply to each of the items in the container list. For good reasons, the items in the container list are minimally described. Consequently, the resulting RDF statement come across rather thin and poorly linked to fuller descriptions. Moreover, different archivists put different emphases on different aspect of EAD description. This makes amalgamated collections of archival linked data difficult to navigate; the linked data requires cleaning and normalization. The solution to these problems might be to create and maintain archival collections in database applications, such as ArchivesSpace, and have linked data published from there. By doing so the linked data publication efforts of the archival community would be more standardized and somewhat centralized.


This essay has outlined the ease at which archival metadata in the form of EAD can be easily published as linked data. The result is far from perfect, but a huge step in the right direction. Publishing linked data is not an event, but rather an iterative process. There is always room for improvement. Starting today, publish your metadata as linked data.

by Eric Lease Morgan at August 16, 2014 02:56 PM

August 07, 2014


Theme from Macroanalysis: Digital Methods and Literary History (Topics in the Digital Humanities)

This chapter describes the how's and why's of topic modeling.

August 07, 2014 04:00 AM

July 19, 2014


Fun with Koha

These are brief notes about my recent experiences with Koha.


koha logoAs you may or may not know, Koha is a grand daddy of library-related open source software, and it is an integrated library system to boot. Such are no small accomplishments. For reasons I will not elaborate upon, I’ve been playing with Koha for the past number of weeks, and in short, I want to say, “I’m impressed.” The community is large, international, congenial, and supportive. The community is divided into a number of sub-groups: developers, committers, commercial support employees, and, of course, librarians. I’ve even seen people from another open source library system (Evergreen) provide technical support and advice. For the most part, everything is on the ‘Net, well laid out, and transparent. There are some rather “organic” parts to the documentation akin to an “English garden”, but that is going to happen in any de-centralized environment. All in all, and without any patronizing intended, “Kudos to Koha!”


Looking through my collection of tarballs, I see I’ve installed Koha a number of times over the years, but this time it was challenging. Sparing you all the details, I needed to use a specific version of MySQL (version 5.5), and I had version 5.6. The installation failure was not really Koha’s fault. It is more the fault of MySQL because the client of MySQL version 5.6 outputs a warning message to STDOUT when a password is passed on the command line. This message confused the Koha database initialization process, thus making Koha unusable. After downgrading to version 5.5 the database initialization process was seamless.

My next step was to correctly configure Zebra — Koha’s default underlying indexer. Again, I had installed from source, and my Zebra libraries, etc. were saved in a directory different from the configuration files created by the Koha’s installation process. After correctly updating the value of modulePath to point to /usr/local/lib/idzebra-2.0/ in zebra-biblios-dom.cfg, zebra-authorities.cfg, zebra-biblios.cfg, and zebra-authorities-dom.cfg I could successfully index and search for content. I learned this from a mailing list posting.

Koha “extras”

Koha comes (for free) with a number of “extras”. For example, the Zebra indexer can be deployed as both a Z39.50 server as well as an SRU server. Turning these things on was as simple as uncommenting a few lines in the koha-conf.xml file and opening a few ports in my firewall. Z39.50 is inherently unusable from a human point of view so I didn’t go into configuring it, but it does work. Through the use of XSL stylesheets, SRU can be much more usable. Luckily I have been here before. For example, a long time ago I used Zebra to index my Alex Catalogue as well as some content from the HathiTrust (MBooks). The hidden interface to the Catalogue sports faceted searching and used to support spelling corrections. The MBooks interface transforms MARCXML into simple HTML. Both of these interfaces are quite zippy. In order to get Zebra to recognize my XSL I needed to add an additional configuration directive to my koha-conf.xml file. Specifically, I need to add a docpath element to my public server’s configuration. Once I re-learned this fact, implementing a rudimentary SRU interface to my Koha index was easy and results are returned very fast. I’m impressed.

My big goal is to figure out ways Koha can expose its content to the wider ‘Net. To this end sKoha comes with an OAI-PMH interface. It needs to be enabled, and can be done through the Koha Web-based backend under Home -> Koha Administration -> Global Preferences -> General Systems Preferences -> Web Services. Once enabled, OAI sets can be created through the Home -> Administration -> OAI sets configuration module. (Whew!) Once this is done Koha will respond to OAI-PMH requests. I then took it upon myself to transform the OAI output into linked data using a program called OAI2LOD. This worked seamlessly, and for a limited period of time you can browse my Koha’s cataloging data as linked data. The viability of the resulting linked data is questionable, but that is another blog posting.

Ideas and next steps

Library catalogs (OPACs, “discovery systems”, whatever you want to call them) are not simple applications/systems. They are a mixture of very specialized inventory lists, various types of people with various skills and authorities, indexing, and circulation, etc. Then we — as librarians — add things like messages of the day, record exporting, browsable lists, visualizations, etc. that complicate the whole thing. It is simply not possible to create a library catalog in the “Unix way“. The installation of Koha was not easy for me. There are expenses with open source software, and I all but melted down my server during the installation process. (Everything is now back to normal.) I’ve been advocating open source software for quite a while, and I understand the meaning of “free” in this context. I’m not complaining. Really.

Now that I’ve gotten this far, my next step is to investigate the feasibility of using a different indexer with Koha. Zebra is functional. It is fast. It is multi-faceted (all puns intended). But configuring it is not straight-forward, and its community of support is tiny. I see from rooting around in the Koha source code that Solr has been explored. I have also heard through the grapevine that ElasticSearch has been explored. I will endeavor to explore these things myself and report on what I learn. Different indexers, with more flexible API’s may make the possibility of exposing Koha content as linked data more feasible as well.

Wish me luck.

by Eric Lease Morgan at July 19, 2014 06:16 PM

July 16, 2014


Matisse: "Jazz"

"Arguably one of the most beloved works of twentieth-century art, Henri Matisse's "Jazz" portfolio - with its inventiveness, spontaneity, and pure intensely pigmented color - projects a sense of joy and freedom." These are the gallery notes from an exhibit of Jazz at the Des Moines (Iowa) art museum.

July 16, 2014 04:00 AM

Jazz, (Henri Matisse)

"Jazz (1947) is an artist's book of 250 prints for the folded book version and 100 impressions for the suite, which contains the unfolded pochoirs without the text, based on paper cutouts by Henri Matisse. Teriade, a noted 20th century art publisher, arranged to have Matisse's cutouts rendered as pochoir (stencil) prints."

July 16, 2014 04:00 AM

Context for the creation of Jazz

"In 1943, while convalescing from a serious operation, Henri Matisse began work on a set of collages to illustrate an, as yet, untitled and undecided text. This suite of twenty images, translated into "prints" by the stenciling of gouache paint, became known as Jazz---considered one of his most ambitious and important series of work." These are notes about the work Jazz by Matisse.

July 16, 2014 04:00 AM

July 08, 2014

Life of a Librarian

Lexicons and sentiment analysis – Notes to self

This is mostly a set of notes to myself on lexicons and sentiment analysis.

A couple of weeks ago I asked Jeffrey Bain-Conkin to read at least one article about sentiment analysis (sometimes called “opinion mining”), and specifically I asked him to help me learn about the use of lexicons in such a process. He came back with a few more articles and a list of pointers to additional information. Thank you, Jeffrey! I am echoing the list here for future reference, for the possible benefit of others, and to remove some of the clutter from my to-do list. While I haven’t read and examined each of the items in great detail, just re-creating the list increases my knowledge. The list is divided into three sections: lexicons, software, and “more”.


  • Arguing Lexicon – “The lexicon includes patterns that represent arguing.”
  • BOOTStrep Bio-Lexicon – “Biological terminology is a frequent cause of analysis errors when processing literature written in the biology domain. For example, ‘retro-regulate’ is a terminological verb often used in molecular biology but it is not included in conventional dictionaries. The BioLexicon is a linguistic resource tailored for the biology domain to cope with these problems. It contains the following types of entries: a set of terminological verbs, a set of derived forms of the terminological verbs, general English words frequently used in the biology domain, [and] domain terms.”
  • English Phrases for Information Retrieval – “Goal of the ‘English Phrases for IR’ (EP4IR) project at the Radboud University Nijmegen (The Netherlands) is the development of a grammar and lexicon of English suitable for applications in Information Retrieval and available in the public domain.”
  • General Inquirer – “The General Inquirer is basically a mapping tool. It maps each text file with counts on dictionary-supplied categories. The currently distributed version combines the ‘Harvard IV-4′ dictionary content-analysis categories, the ‘Lasswell’ dictionary content-analysis categories, and five categories based on the social cognition work of Semin and Fiedler, making for 182 categories in all. Each category is a list of words and word senses. A category such as ‘self references’ may contain only a dozen entries, mostly pronouns. Currently, the category ‘negative’ is our largest with 2291 entries. Users can also add additional categories of any size.”
  • NRC word-emotion association lexicon – “The lexicon has human annotations of emotion associations for more than 24,200 word senses (about 14,200 word types). The annotations include whether the target is positive or negative, and whether the target has associations with eight basic emotions (joy, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, anticipation, trust, disgust).” The URL also points to a large number of articles on sentiment analysis in general.
  • Subjectivity Lexicon – “The Subjectivity Lexicon (list of subjectivity clues) that is part of OpinionFinder…”
  • WordNet – “WordNet® is a large lexical database of English. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. Synsets are interlinked by means of conceptual-semantic and lexical relations. The resulting network of meaningfully related words and concepts can be navigated with the browser. WordNet is also freely and publicly available for download. WordNet’s structure makes it a useful tool for computational linguistics and natural language processing.”
  • WordNet Domains – “WordNet Domains is a lexical resource created in a semi-automatic way by augmenting WordNet with domain labels. WordNet Synsets have been annotated with at least one semantic domain label, selected from a set of about two hundred labels structured according the WordNet Domain Hierarchy. Information brought by domains is complementary to what is already in Wordnet. A domain may include synsets of different syntactic categories and from different WordNet sub-hierarchies. Domains may group senses of the same word into homogeneous clusters, with the side effect of reducing word polysemy in WordNet.”
  • WordNet-Affect – “WordNet-Affect is an extension of WordNet Domains, including a subset of synsets suitable to represent affective concepts correlated with affective words. Similarly to our method for domain labels, we assigned to a number of WordNet synsets one or more affective labels (a-labels). In particular, the affective concepts representing emotional state are individuated by synsets marked with the a-label emotion. There are also other a-labels for those concepts representing moods, situations eliciting emotions, or emotional responses. The resource was extended with a set of additional a-labels (called emotional categories), hierarchically organized, in order to specialize synsets with a-label emotion. The hierarchical structure of new a-labels was modeled on the WordNet hyperonym relation. In a second stage, we introduced some modifications, in order to distinguish synsets according to emotional valence. We defined four addictional a-labels: positive, negative, ambiguous, and neutral.”

Software / applications

  • Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count – “Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) is a text analysis software program designed by James W. Pennebaker, Roger J. Booth, and Martha E. Francis. LIWC calculates the degree to which people use different categories of words across a wide array of texts, including emails, speeches, poems, or transcribed daily speech. With a click of a button, you can determine the degree any text uses positive or negative emotions, self-references, causal words, and 70 other language dimensions.”
  • OpinionFinder – “OpinionFinder is a system that processes documents and automatically identifies subjective sentences as well as various aspects of subjectivity within sentences, including agents who are sources of opinion, direct subjective expressions and speech events, and sentiment expressions.”
  • SenticNet – “SenticNet is a publicly available semantic resource for concept-level sentiment analysis. The affective common-sense knowledge base is built by means of sentic computing, a paradigm that exploits both AI and Semantic Web techniques to better recognize, interpret, and process natural language opinions over the Web. In particular, SenticNet exploits an ensemble of graph-mining and dimensionality-reduction techniques to bridge the conceptual and affective gap between word-level natural language data and the concept-level opinions and sentiments conveyed by them. SenticNet is a knowledge base that can be employed for the development of applications in fields such as big social data analysis, human-computer interaction, and e-health.”
  • SPECIALIST NLP Tools – “The SPECIALIST Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tools have been developed by the The Lexical Systems Group of The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications to investigate the contributions that natural language processing techniques can make to the task of mediating between the language of users and the language of online biomedical information resources. The SPECIALIST NLP Tools facilitate natural language processing by helping application developers with lexical variation and text analysis tasks in the biomedical domain. The NLP Tools are open source resources distributed subject to these [specific] terms and conditions.”
  • Visual Sentiment Ontology – “The analysis of emotion, affect and sentiment from visual content has become an exciting area in the multimedia community allowing to build new applications for brand monitoring, advertising, and opinion mining. There exists no corpora for sentiment analysis on visual content, and therefore limits the progress in this critical area. To stimulate innovative research on this challenging issue, we constructed a new benchmark and database. This database contains a Visual Sentiment Ontology (VSO) consisting of 3244 adjective noun pairs (ANP), SentiBank a set of 1200 trained visual concept detectors providing a mid-level representation of sentiment, associated training images acquired from Flickr, and a benchmark containing 603 photo tweets covering a diverse set of 21 topics. This website provides the above mentioned material for download…”

Lists of additional information

  • Lexical databases and corpora – “This is a list of links to lexical databases and corpora, organized by language or language group. The resources on this page were initially compiled from announcements on the LINGUIST list and web-search results. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list, but rather a place to organize and store potentially useful links as I [Jen Smith] encounter them.”
  • Opinion Mining, Sentiment Analysis, and Opinion Spam Detection – a long list of links pointing to articles, etc. about opinion mining.
  • Sentiment Symposium Tutorial – “This tutorial covers all aspects of building effective sentiment analysis systems for textual data, with and without sentiment-relevant metadata like star ratings. We proceed from pre-processing techniques to advanced uses cases, assessing common approaches and identifying best practices.”


What did I learn? I learned that to do sentiment analysis, lexicons are often employed. I learned that to evaluate a corpus for a particular sentiment, a researcher first needs to create a lexicon embodying that sentiment. Each element in the lexicon then needs to be assigned a quantitative value. The lexicon is then compared to the corpus tabulating the occurrences. Once tabulated, scores can then be summed, measurements taken, observations made and graphed, and conclusions/judgments made. Correct? Again, thank you, Jeffrey!

“Librarians love lists.”

by Eric Lease Morgan at July 08, 2014 07:12 PM

July 03, 2014

Life of a Librarian

What’s Eric Reading?

I have resurrected an application/system of files used to archive and disseminate things (mostly articles) I’ve been reading. I call it What’s Eric Reading? From the original About page:

I have been having fun recently indexing PDF files.

For the pasts six months or so I have been keeping the articles I’ve read in a pile, and I was rather amazed at the size of the pile. It was about a foot tall. When I read these articles I “actively” read them — meaning, I write, scribble, highlight, and annotate the text with my own special notation denoting names, keywords, definitions, citations, quotations, list items, examples, etc. This active reading process: 1) makes for better comprehension on my part, and 2) makes the articles easier to review and pick out the ideas I thought were salient. Being the librarian I am, I thought it might be cool (“kewl”) to make the articles into a collection. Thus, the beginnings of Highlights & Annotations: A Value-Added Reading List.

The techno-weenie process for creating and maintaining the content is something this community might find interesting:

  1. Print article and read it actively.
  2. Convert the printed article into a PDF file — complete with embedded OCR — with my handy-dandy ScanSnap scanner.
  3. Use MyLibrary to create metadata (author, title, date published, date read, note, keywords, facet/term combinations, local and remote URLs, etc.) describing the article.
  4. Save the PDF to my file system.
  5. Use pdttotext to extract the OCRed text from the PDF and index it along with the MyLibrary metadata using Solr.
  6. Provide a searchable/browsable user interface to the collection through a mod_perl module.

Software is never done, and if it were then it would be called hardware. Accordingly, I know there are some things I need to do before I can truely deem the system version 1.0. At the same time my excitment is overflowing and I thought I’d share some geekdom with my fellow hackers.

Fun with PDF files and open source software.

by Eric Lease Morgan at July 03, 2014 08:36 PM


Librarians And Scholars: Partners In Digital Humanities

"Libraries have numerous capabilities and considerable expertise available to accelerate digital humanities initiatives. The University of Michigan Library developed a model for effective partnership between libraries and digital humanities scholars; this model contributes to both a definition and redefinition of this emergent field. As the U-M experience shows, using the digital humanities as a key innovation tool can help libraries and their host institutions transform the way research, teaching, and learning are conceptualized. Several real-world examples illustrate the power of collaboration in providing win-win scenarios for both librarians and scholars in the advancement of scholarship."

This was an article mostly on "how we did good."

July 03, 2014 04:00 AM

Digital Scholarship in the Humanities a Creative Arts The HuNI Virtual Laboratory

"One of the Australian national virtual laboratories, the Humanities Networked Infrastructure brings together data from 30 different data sets containing more than two million records of Australian heritage. HuNI maps the data to an overall data model and converts the data for inclusion in an aggregated store. HuNI is also assembling and adapting software tools for using and working with the aggregated data. Underlying HuNI is the recognition that cultural data is not economically, culturally, or socially insular, and researchers need to collaborate across disciplines, institutions, and social locations to explore it fully."

July 03, 2014 04:00 AM

Digital Collections As Research Infrastructure

"Given the importance of digital content to scholarship, institutions are increasingly developing strategic digitization programs to provide online access to both their reference collections and their unique and distinct materials. The internal digitization program at the National Library of Wales focuses on its collections and supports many projects, offering access to over 2,000,000 pages of historic Welsh newspapers, journals, and archives. Work on the program has yielded theoretical as well as practical results; among the former are the definition of five categories of digital content engagement: use it, share it, engage with it, enrich it, and sustain it. Using these categories as a guide can help ensure that programs add to their digital content's value, increase its impact, and ensure its maintenance as part of a shared digital research infrastructure."

July 03, 2014 04:00 AM

Date created: 2000-05-19
Date updated: 2011-05-03
URL: http://infomotions.com/